A 4-R program for summer grazing

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest With the arrival of summer we can generally expect warm to hot temperatures and less frequent rainfall. The vast majority of pastures managed for grazing in our area are composed of cool season grass species that grow best when temperatures are cool to warm and moisture is plentiful. Thus, we have the summer slump in pasture productivity.Although summer weather conditions are not conducive to high yields with cool season grasses, there are some grazing management practices that can help to increase summertime productivity. These practices can be summarized as the four “Rs.”The first “R” is remove seed heads. Clipping off seed heads in late June will return grass plants to vegetative growth and improve the quality of the forage that is grazed.The second “R” is right starting height. Do not let livestock into a pasture paddock where grass height is too short because this is almost certain to lead to overgrazing. What is the right height? It depends upon the predominant grass in the pasture mix. Perennial ryegrass should be grazed when it reaches the six- to eight-inch height. Orchardgrass and endophyte free or novel endophyte tall fescue grass should be grazed starting at an eight- to 10-inch height. Endophyte infected tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass should be grazed when the height reaches five to six inches.The third “R” is residual leaf area. Do not overgraze pasture paddocks. Pull livestock out of pasture paddocks while there is still sufficient leaf area for the plant to continue to photosynthesize. The general principle that is taught in grazing schools is to take half the plant and leave half the plant.Leaving sufficient leaf residual has several benefits. When more than half the plant is grazed or clipped off, root growth is drastically affected and the plant takes longer to recover from defoliation. Leaving half the plant allows root growth and function to continue with very minimal reduction and the plant recovers rapidly from the grazing defoliation.Leaving more residual leaf area also helps to shade the soil. In the summer heat this can mean cooler soil temperatures and less moisture loss from the soil, important considerations to keep grass growing. In general, do not graze below three inches in height for perennial ryegrass, below four inches in height for orchardgrass, endophyte free or novel endophyte tall fescue and do not graze below two inches in height for Kentucky bluegrass and endophyte infected tall fescue.The fourth “R” is rest period. After a grazing pass allow enough time for that plant to regrow back to the right grazing height. The length of this rest period is affected by how much leaf residual has been left, the air and soil temperature, and soil moisture. Summer pasture rotations need to slow down because the grass is growing slower.For example, during the favorable temperatures and moisture conditions of spring and early summer grass is growing fast and it may have been possible to get back to a pasture paddock within an 18- to 25-day period for another grazing pass. In the summer the rest period required for that same plant to regrow to the right grazing height may be anywhere from 30 to 50 or more days.During drought conditions plants may stop growing. In this case, the only way to avoid overgrazing is to stop rotating between paddocks and keep livestock in a sacrifice area. The only way to maintain the longer rest periods needed during summer weather is to have enough pasture paddocks or divisions. Most of the experienced graziers that I know have at least 10 pasture paddocks or run multiple pasture divisions as they strip graze across a pasture. I have yet to hear an experienced grazier say that they regret putting in another pasture division or paddock.Summer weather can negatively affect cool season pastures, but following good grazing management practices can minimize those negative effects.last_img read more

Florida States Drop From No 1 Wasnt Unprecedented

Despite beating Syracuse 38-20 Saturday, the (formerly) No. 1 ranked Florida State Seminoles found themselves ranked second in the latest AP Poll, trailing Mississippi State after the Bulldogs beat previous No. 2 Auburn 38-23 at home in Starkville. It was the first time Florida State had not occupied the AP’s top slot since Nov. 24 of last season.Although Mississippi State’s victory over Auburn was impressive, the way the polls typically work is that No. 1 stays No. 1 as long as No. 1 keeps winning (or soundly beats an underdog opponent). Florida State was favored by 23 against Syracuse and won by 18 in a game that was essentially over midway through the third quarter. The Seminoles are also the defending national champions, and so far this season they’ve outscored opponents by more than 18 points per game (a number that becomes nearly 21 if we throw out their six-point win over Clemson in which they were missing 2013 Heisman Trophy-winning quarterback Jameis Winston). If Florida State is presumed to be the nation’s best team — as it was before the season — it’s hard to find a obvious misstep that proves otherwise. (If anything, a good Bayesian should probably be more suspicious of Mississippi State, which was unranked as recently as five weeks ago.)Then again, the Seminoles have also played just one team (Clemson) ranked among the AP’s Top 25 at the time of the game, and their overall strength of schedule ranks 64th in the FBS, according to Sports-Reference.com’s Simple Rating System. While my Elo variant still has them ranked first, it draws heavily from knowledge of how good they were last season. Computer-rating systems that don’t account for Florida State’s presumed strength as a prior, by contrast, tend to rank it among the country’s best teams — but generally not as No. 1. (That honor is more often bestowed upon either Mississippi State or Ole Miss, who very nearly bumped Florida State to No. 3 in the AP voting.) Combined with potential distaste over the sexual assault allegation against Winston, AP voters had several reasons to drop the Seminoles from their perch atop the rankings, despite the team’s 22-game winning streak and championship incumbency.How frequently do No. 1 ranked teams fall in the AP Poll despite winning their most recent game? According to Sports-Reference’s college football data, there have been 21 cases (since 1992) of the AP’s top team beating an FBS opponent but dropping in the next poll (ratings and expected margins shown below are based on the Elo rating variant I described in an earlier post):Compare the incumbents’ performances to those of the overtaking teams that claimed No. 1 in the subsequent AP poll:There are a few circumstances that can lead to No. 1 winning a game but losing its ranking, usually involving some combination of the incumbent disappointing and/or the upstart exceeding expectations. Florida State’s tumble was more an example of the latter than the former — the Seminoles underwhelmed by a bit, but the bigger factor was Mississippi State’s strong performance against Auburn.Most of the cases above involve a similar chain of events, although a few saw the incumbent disappoint by so great a margin that No. 2 slid up just by playing to expectations. On other occasions, the challenger moved up without even playing; in 1992, No. 2 Washington watched on the sidelines as No. 1 Miami struggled to an 8-7 win over unranked Arizona, then claimed the AP’s top spot three days later. (The Hurricanes and Huskies would flip-flop the No. 1 slot twice more — each time in spite of incumbent wins — before the season was over.) And sometimes the pollsters swapped teams at the top for relatively arbitrary reasons, such as when Penn State crushed No. 21 Ohio State 63-14 — yet dropped behind Nebraska, who’d beaten previous No. 2 Colorado 24-7. (Despite going undefeated the rest of the season, the Nittany Lions would never again stake their claim to No. 1 over Nebraska from that point on, and were unable to face the Huskers in the postseason because of the Rose Bowl’s conference tie-ins.)The good news for Florida State is that it still has the highest probabilities of winning out and winning its conference among the major-conference undefeateds, according to ESPN’s Football Power Index simulations. Barring the real possibility of a change to Winston’s availability — on top of the sexual assault allegations, news broke Monday night that Florida State was investigating whether the quarterback signed autographs for money — the numbers show the Seminoles as very likely to earn a berth into the inaugural College Football Playoff field, regardless of Sunday’s ranking loss. read more

Ferrari crash Forensic team examines car

first_imgKolkata: State forensic experts on Monday collected samples from the mangled portion of the Ferrari California T which has been kept at the Domjur police station since a fatal accident involving the high-end car killed a city-based businessman and injured his companion who was sitting next to him.A five-member team of the state forensic experts headed by Wasim Raza reached Domjur police station on Monday morning and examined the ill-fated car. They searched for the Electronic Data Record (EDR) box from the car which might throw some light on how the accident occurred. According to a senior police officer at the Howrah district police, once the EDR box could be accessed, the investigators will be able to acquire various information related to speed of the vehicle moments before it hit the railing or the airbag did not open properly or any other technical glitches the car might have faced. The EDR will also record the conversation of the duo who were travelling in the car. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAccording to a forensic expert, the chip inside the EDR box will provide all related data as how the accident occurred or if there was any mechanical fault causing the accident. Sources said the state government agencies lack the infrastructure to remove the EDR from the vehicle. It was also learnt that the police might seek assistance from the car manufacturing company on the removal of the EDR box from the vehicle. However, many have raised questions whether the high-end sports car like Ferrari can be run on roads like National Highway 6 which are not prepared following the international guidelines. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedSome also asked if there is any restriction on the high- end cars on such highways in the state.It may be mentioned that Shibaji Roy, a city-based businessman, was driving the vehicle at the time of the accident while his friend Ashna Surana (21) was sitting next to him. Surana had suffered critical injuries in her body and is undergoing treatment at a private hospital in the city. Her condition is still stated to be serious. The car they were travelling in toppled on National Highway 6 at least 6-7 times before hitting the railing of a divider at Pakuria area of Domjur on Sunday morning. According to the police, the victims were returning from Dankuni after having food. Roy used to go to Dankuni along with some of his friends almost every Sunday.last_img read more

For Tech Makers Collaboration Is Critical for Creating the Best Internet of

first_img This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. 2 min read LAS VEGAS — If you were to ask Samsung Electronics president and CEO BK Yoon to describe the future of his company, and really the tech industry in general, he’d most likely answer with three words: Internet of Things. During his keynote presentation here at the Consumer Electronics Show, Yoon said approximately 90 percent of Samsung devices will be related to the Internet of Things by 2017.Yoon also made a plea that industry giants, as well as aspiring tech entrepreneurs, work together to develop the best connected products and services. The key to the future of the Internet of Things is that all devices are compatible on open platforms, Yoon said. That will require deeper collaboration among the major tech companies.Samsung’s Yoon & SmartThings founder Alex Hawkinson: Key to IoT is that all devices are compatible on open platforms. pic.twitter.com/eOfHi7XopF— Jason Fell (@jwfell) January 6, 2015“Our whole industry needs to pull together to really make Internet of Things a reality,” Yoon said. Anticipating this shift, Samsung in August snapped up smart-home startup SmartThings for about $200 million.Samsung isn’t the only company getting behind the connectivity craze. By 2020, the global Internet of Things market is expected to grow to $7.1 trillion, according to data from Framingham, Mass.-based research firm IDC. That’s up from about $1.9 trillion in 2013.Related: Our Smartphones Have Changed EverythingDuring his presentation, Yoon and SmartThings founder and CEO Alex Hawkinson announced the “next generation” version of the SmartThings hub, featuring a more powerful processor and local app engine, built-in backup battery power, and expanded connectivity options that provide customers with “the widest range of devices supported by any smart home platform.”Samsung also highlighted a collaboration with German car maker BMW. The companies are developing solutions that allow car owners to use connected devices like smartphones and smartwatches to deliver voice and gesture-related commands to their cars.”The Internet of Things has the power to change our economy, our society, and improve the way we live our lives,” Yoon said. “The Internet of Things is no longer science fiction. It’s science fact.”Related: Sony Is Bringing Back the Walkman (Again)  Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Nowcenter_img January 6, 2015 Enroll Now for Freelast_img read more