A ROMANIAN mafia gang paid teenage boys just a fiver a day for forced labour here in Co Donegal.Undercover gardai spent days observing the sickening operation in which the boys were treated as slaves by the mafia boss.The top criminal gang – which also runs brothels in Letterkenny – made the boys carry out manual labour for up to 14 hours every day. In return five teenagers got €5 to spend on food for themselves.They were forced to live in horrific conditions in a flat in the town.The alarm was raised when one of the boys rang the Romanian embassy in Dublin pleading for help.Gardaí responded, observed the operation and then moved in to rescue the teenagers who were being held here against their will. Four of the boys have since been reunited with loved ones and family. The teenagers were “delighted” at being rescued.Investigations are continuing into the shameful slavery scandal, and how the boys were flown into Ireland and then sold on as slaves.They were threatened and beaten when they complained and passports were confiscated.Most of them had very little English. REVEALED: ROMANIAN BOY ‘SLAVES’ GOT JUST €5 A DAY was last modified: September 13th, 2015 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalGardailetterkennyRomaniaslaves
South Africa’s Constitutional Court, which upholds the Constitution, at night. As the supreme law of the country, the Constitution binds all organs of the state – legislative, executive and judicial – at all levels of government.(Image: Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com. For more freephotos, visit the image library)South Africa’s Constitution, admired and respected around the world for its pioneering approach to human rights, is the symbol of a remarkable negotiated transition – one that turned a country ravaged by apartheid and oppression into one that celebrates democracy and freedom.The interim Constitution, which came into effect in 1994, not only set the stage for South Africa’s first democratic elections, but was – as the document itself explained – “a historic bridge between the past of a deeply divided society characterised by strife, conflict, untold suffering and injustice, and a future founded on the recognition of human rights, democracy and peaceful co-existence and development opportunities for all South Africans, irrespective of colour, race, class, belief or sex”.Background to the ConstitutionThe interim Constitution was negotiated between representatives of organisations involved in the liberation struggle, political parties and other groups. After the first democratic elections on 27 April 1994, the elected representatives, meeting as a body called the Constitutional Assembly, drafted a new Constitution. In 1996, after two years of public consultation and much debate, the final Constitution was at last adopted.See the Constitutional Court’s website for more about the history of the Constitution.Constitutional supremacySection 2 of Chapter 1 – which is entitled “Supremacy of Constitution” – states: “This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic; law or conduct inconsistent with it is invalid, and the obligations imposed by it must be fulfilled.”Although South Africa did have a constitution before the interim Constitution of 1994 and the final Constitution of 1996, the “tri-cameral” constitution (which established three separate houses of parliament for whites, coloureds and Indians) was not supreme. Instead, a system of parliamentary sovereignty prevailed – which meant the legislature could pass any laws it liked, as long as the correct procedure was followed.Nowadays, however, the Constitution is superior to Parliament and is the yardstick by which all laws and acts of state are judged. It applies to all organs of government – including Parliament, the Presidency, the police force, the army and the public service. This means any law that violates the Constitution, or any conduct that conflicts with it, can now be challenged and struck down by the courts – most notably the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court in the land when it comes to constitutional matters.Constitutional entrenchmentThe Constitution itself is protected, which means it is harder for the legislature to change it than is the case with ordinary legislation.Section 74(2) states that bills amending the Constitution require a two-thirds majority in the National Assembly as well as a supporting vote of six of the nine provinces represented in the National Council of Provinces.However, a bill amending Section 1 of the Constitution, which sets out the founding values, requires a 75 percent majority.Constitutional rightsHuman rights occupy pride of place in the Constitution. The preamble refers to fundamental rights and the first section of Chapter 1 (Founding Provisions) says South Africa is founded on: “Human dignity, the achievement of equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms”.Chapter 2 contains South Africa’s Bill of Rights. It is this part of the Constitution that has attracted the greatest interest – and has had the greatest impact on South Africans – in the past few years.The first words of the chapter introduce the Bill of Rights as a “cornerstone of democracy” that “enshrines the rights of all people in our country and affirms the democratic values of human dignity, equality and freedom”.Among the rights enshrined in the Bill of Rights are the right to life, equality, human dignity, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, freedom of association, political rights and the right to peaceful assembly and demonstration. These are the usual “first generation” rights that are guaranteed in most democratic countries.However, a distinctive feature of our right to equality is that it includes a prohibition against unfair discrimination based on sexual orientation – making South Africa the first nation in the world to insert such a clause.Our Bill of Rights also contains socioeconomic rights, or “second generation” rights. They place a duty on the government to work to provide education, health services, water and housing.The last group of rights in the Bill of Rights – the “third generation” rights – often attract praise for our Constitution. They include the right to having the environment protected, the right of access to information and the right to just administrative action.Another special feature of our Bill of Rights – and one it shares with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms – is the limitations clause, which allows competing and conflicting rights to be balanced. Section 36 of the Constitution (headed “Limitation of rights”), lays down a test that any limitation must meet. The two central concepts are reasonableness and proportionality: any restriction on a right must be reasonable and must be proportional in that the impact or extent of the restriction must match the importance of the aim served by the limitation of the right.The rights conferred by the Constitution have been the basis of a number of groundbreaking cases. For examples of South Africa’s recent human-rights jurisprudence, see the Constitutional Court website’s discussion of rights for women, children, workers and gays and lesbians. Institutions to support democracyA significant feature of our Constitution is that it sets up several independent bodies to support and safeguard democracy. These are often referred to as the “Chapter 9 institutions”, because they have their origins in that part of the Constitution. These are:The Auditor-GeneralThe Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic CommunitiesThe Commission on Gender EqualityThe Human Rights CommissionThe Independent Electoral Commission The Public ProtectorStructure and other contentsOther than a preamble at the beginning and seven schedules at the end, the Constitution is arranged into 14 chapters, namely:Chapter 1: Founding Provisions (sections 1-6)Chapter 2: Bill of Rights (sections 7-39)Chapter 3: Cooperative Government (sections 40-41)Chapter 4: Parliament (sections 42-82)Chapter 5: The President and National Executive (sections 83-102)Chapter 6: Provinces (sections 103-150)Chapter 7: Local Government (sections 151-164)Chapter 8: Courts and Administration of Justice (sections 165-180)Chapter 9: State Institutions Supporting Constitutional Democracy (sections 181-194)Chapter 10: Public Administration (sections 195-197)Chapter 11: Security Services (sections 198-210)Chapter 12: Traditional Leaders (sections 211-212)Chapter 13: Finance (sections 213-230A)Chapter 14: General Provisions (sections 231-243)Chapters 3 to 7 detail the country’s democratic system of government, one characteristic of which is the stress on interaction between the national, provincial and local levels through the mechanism of cooperative governance.Other important characteristics are those generally considered essential to democracy, such as the specification of the manner in which representatives are elected, limitations on terms of office, and the majorities required to pass legislation.The Constitution goes on to deal with the courts and administration of justice, public administration, security services (defence, police and intelligence), the role of traditional leaders and finance.The final chapter covers general provisions, including international agreements and international law. Among other things, the final chapter requires that all constitutional obligations “be performed diligently and without delay”.Coming late to democracy, South Africa was able to draw on the collective wisdom of the democratic countries of the world in creating its Constitution. Having come along a route of struggle and pain, the country took the process deeply to heart – and takes great pride in the result. Useful linksThe Constitutional CourtSouth African Government OnlineGovernment Communication and Information SystemThe Auditor-GeneralThe Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious and Linguistic CommunitiesThe Commission on Gender Equality The Human Rights CommissionThe Independent Electoral CommissionThe Public Protector
Looking for more filmmaking tips and tricks? Check out these articles.Video Tutorial: Determining The Best Lens for Your ProjectThe Best Quotes from Directors, Editors, and Everything in BetweenIndustry Insights: The Ins and Outs of Working as a Script SupervisorTutorial: Removing Audio Pops and Recording Audio Differently11 YouTube Channels Every Filmmaker Should Follow in 2019 A good documentary must tell a powerful story. Here are four tips to keep you on track, especially when the going gets tough.A few months ago, my short documentary “Blinders” took home the Canada of Excellence award at 2018’s BufferFestival in Toronto, Ontario.The focus of my film was to shine a light on a voiceless community — the homeless.In less than 72 hours, my family and I organized a gourmet dinner for 12 strangers living on the streets. We provided dinner in exchange for the guests’ stories. My family’s goal was to eliminate ignorance and open lines of communications with those who live on the streets.When crafting the film, I used a four-step formula to create a dynamic story on set and in post-production. This formula is now one I use on nearly every documentary, vlog, or narrative piece I create.1. Easy Is BoringIf it’s easy or comfortable, you’re probably not capturing anything compelling. When you’re working on a documentary project, the greatest moments come from difficulty. If someone is struggling, chances are there’s a message in their experience. Remember, the best stories come with lessons, and the most effective lessons stem from someone or something overcoming an obstacle. In our documentary “Blinders,” the best moments on camera were by far the hardest ones to capture. There’s a scene when I almost give up on the entire event because no one shows up. I was defeated and depressed, and I wanted to turn the whole project around; this is my favorite part of the film. In a matter of moments, I was able to solve a few problems and turn the event around.Capturing difficult moments like this can not only provide an on-screen lesson but also a narrative victory. Your audience gains no emotional connection from events with only surface-level expression. If you can capture their emotions with a real struggle and pair it with a victory or a lesson, you have a much more effective film.Your story lives in the uncomfortable, so find it. If you’re in an easy location, go to the most challenging area. Think of it as summiting a mountain and documenting the assent. The destination isn’t as interesting as the struggle to get there. If you document the struggle, the victory will seem much more rewarding for the audience.(Quick tip: If someone is struggling, give them space. Don’t film people just for the sake of getting the shot. Be sure to get their permission before rolling. The last thing you want is someone to be upset or disingenuous because there’s a camera in their face.)2. The Beginning and the EndingInstead of relying on your editor to assemble a story from piles of footage, think ahead. As you’re capturing the scene, begin to daisy-chain a narrative together. Think about establishing shots, wides, introductions, etc. I always think of the beginning and the ending because no matter what, the middle is inevitable — it will simply fill itself in. When entering a situation, moment, or location ask yourself “How does this scene start, and how does it end?” Implement a dash conflict on-top of that, and now you’re cooking!3. Interviews Will Save the DayDialogue in documentaries is a lifesaver when it comes to constructing a story. While editing my films, I love to have a supply of interviews, even if I don’t use them. This is because it helps establish what the story is actually about without getting lost in B-roll or cinematic sequences.When I was working on “Blinders,” I used interviews and vlog-style monologues to keep the story on track. You don’t always need dialogue, but it’s something that can absolutely save your story. Show don’t tell — unless showing doesn’t do the story justice.4. Emotion Before Motion Repeat this in your head. Make it a mantra. Tattoo it on your face. Emotion before motion is the secret to getting a better story. As a shooter, it’s very easy to get caught up in cinematic sequences and long camera setups to capture the most beautiful shot. This does nothing to the story if there’s no emotion behind what you’re capturing. Think of what sequence of shots captures the greatest feeling on screen and follow that.
Rufus Warren MSU CheerleaderMississippi State offensive lineman Rufus Warren is listed at 6-foot-7, 299 pounds on the school’s website. He has to handle large, athletic SEC defensive linemen on a regular basis, but when it came time to lift up an SEC cheerleader today, Warren wasn’t sure how to handle it.Here’s the video of Warren lifting up an MSU cheerleader. He does the job, but admittedly wasn’t too steady and seemed quite happy to be put her down as soon as possible.VIDEO: We are on our way to the coliseum, but first Rufus Warren tried out to be a cheerleader. #HailState pic.twitter.com/8dej0QMc7v— MSU Football (@HailStateFB) July 16, 2015Warren will probably take some good-natured ribbing for that, but he seemed pretty comfortable laughing at himself.
(Photo by Streeter Lecka/Getty Images)It seems fairly obvious that Tennessee JUCO signee Jonathan Kongbo has Oct. 15 circled on his calendar. That’s the day the Volunteers host the reigning national champions, Alabama, at Neyland Stadium in Knoxville, Tenn. Kongbo, one of the top defensive recruits in the country, previously posted a video of himself working out with a “Bama We Coming” sign in the background. Now, in an interview with Rocky Top Insider, Kongbo all but guaranteed a victory against the Crimson Tide. His response comes after being asked about the Tennessee-themed trash talk from Florida’s Jalen Tabor. On the trash talk from Florida’s Jalen Tabor:“Well I mean, I just kind of laughed at it because I know we’re going to beat Florida. I know we’re going to beat Alabama. We’re going to beat all those teams. So I’ll say right now, we’re going to beat every team we play next year. I just really laughed at it, especially the comments that Jalen made. It was funny. We’ll see what Jalen Hurd does to him though.”On his final message:“I mean, kind of the main thing is, if you want to be the best you got to beat the best. And we know Alabama won the national championship this year and the message that I’m sending to them is that ain’t no one around here scared of that. We’re coming for them. It’s football so once the pads are on, you’ve got to figure out how to win so we’ll see.”Alabama-Tennessee should be pretty, pretty fun this year.[RTI]
zoom Japan’s NYK Line, MTI Co. Ltd., and Japan Marine United Corporation (JMU) have developed a highly efficient propeller by analyzing the conditions surrounding vessel propellers in actual operation.The propeller, which will achieve a 1.2 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by improving fuel efficiency, will be installed on two newly built containerships scheduled for delivery in 2019.NYK informed that the project partners analyzed the condition of a propeller in operation on an oceangoing vessel. Afterward, they confirmed that the simulation data matched the actual conditions to a high probability. The highly reliable simulation was then used to achieve further optimization of propeller design and thus improve fuel efficiency.In collaboration with shipping companies and shipbuilders, the three companies “will continue to make use of their expertise to contribute to the realization of a sustainable society through the provision and operation of vessels demonstrating excellent environmental performance,” NYK said.The analysis was conducted by observing the cavitation and measuring the flow velocity around the propeller. Cavitation is a phenomenon in which air bubbles are generated when the pressure in a liquid suddenly drops. Excessive cavitation on the propeller blade causes ship vibration and leads to erosion of the propeller.
As the eight World Cup teams in Groups E and F take the field Wednesday in Brazil, some things are not in much doubt. Argentina has clinched advancement in Group F. France has not technically clinched advancement in Group E, but its goal differential is so strong that it has advanced for all intents and purposes.Switzerland and Ecuador have a lot on the line, however. So does Nigeria, which is favored to advance but could fail to do so if it loses to Argentina and Iran beats Bosnia and Herzegovina. There’s even a possibility that FIFA could have to draw lots to determine whether Nigeria or Iran moves on. Let’s focus on Nigeria’s Group F first, which will kick off its final games Wednesday at noon Eastern time:Most scenarios in Group F are simple. Argentina will advance in first place if it beats or draws Nigeria, or as the second-place team behind Nigeria if it loses to it.Nigeria is an 88 percent favorite to advance in some capacity, according to the FiveThirtyEight forecast. The only way it could fail to do so is the case I mentioned: if it loses to Argentina while Iran beats Bosnia. That scenario could get messy.Say that Iran beats Bosnia 2-1 while Nigeria loses to Argentina by the same 2-1 scoreline. Both teams will have one win, one draw and one loss. Both will have two goals scored and two goals allowed. FIFA’s next tiebreaker is head-to-head results, but Nigeria and Iran drew their match. That means FIFA would be out of tiebreakers and forced to draw lots to determine who advances.Mind you, this situation is unlikely. Iran is probably a weaker team than Bosnia and has only a 21 percent chance of beating the World Cup newcomer. Also, anything but the same scoreline in the two Group F matches would give FIFA some other way to resolve the tie. For example, if Iran won 2-0 and Nigeria lost 1-0, Iran would have the better goal differential and would advance. If Iran won 1-0 and Nigeria lost 2-1, the teams would be tied on goal differential but Nigeria would advance on the basis of goals scored. The chance that FIFA will have to draw lots is only 0.6 percent, according to our match predictor.An even bigger longshot than that scenario is if France failed to advance from Group E. Let’s look at the situation there:The FiveThirtyEight forecast lists each team’s advancement probability to the first decimal point and describes France’s chances at 100.0 percent; if we added a decimal place, they’d be 99.98 percent instead. The only way this extraordinarily unlikely scenario could come into play is as follows: France loses to Ecuador. Switzerland beats Honduras. Then France, Switzerland and Ecuador are tied atop Group E with six points each.This scenario is not all that unlikely: There’s a 10 percent chance that both Switzerland and Ecuador will win their matches. But France would also have to finish last among the three teams in the goal-differential tiebreaker. There’s almost no chance that will happen; France’s goal differential is +6 so far, while Ecuador’s is even and Switzerland’s is -2.But Switzerland and Ecuador’s advancement prospects are more complicated. Switzerland is guaranteed to advance if:It beats Honduras and Ecuador draws or loses.It draws Honduras and Ecuador loses.Ecuador is guaranteed to advance if:It beats France and Switzerland draws or loses.It draws France and Switzerland loses.Both matches in Group E are draws.Other cases, like the one where Ecuador and Switzerland both win, will go down to a tiebreaker.There’s even an outside chance (about 2 percent) for a three-way tie, in which Honduras could advance. That would require both Honduras and France to win — in which case Honduras, Ecuador and Switzerland would be tied for second with three points each. Honduras would then need to win on the tiebreaker. That would probably require them to beat Switzerland by at least two goals while Ecuador takes a multi-goal loss to France.CORRECTION (June 25, 9:39 a.m.): An earlier version of this post incorrectly described the scenario of Iran beating Bosnia 2-1 and Nigeria losing to Argentina by the same 2-1 scoreline.
Redshirt freshman wrestler Kollin Moore gets his hand raised after defeating Penn State’s Matt McCutcheon at 197 pounds on Feb. 3, 2017 at the Schottenstein Center. Credit: Nicholas McWilliams | Former Sports EditorThree Ohio State wrestlers — heavyweight Kyle Snyder, 187-pound Kollin Moore at 187 pounds and 125-pound Nathan Tomasello — were listed in No. 1 spots in FloWrestling’s preseason NCAA wrestling rankings on Monday.Buckeye wrestlers are represented in the top-12 of every weight class. FloWrestling also ranked Ohio State second in the NCAA in its preseason rankings. Coach Tom Ryan’s group ranks behind Penn State, which won the NCAA team championship the past two seasons.The Buckeyes, coming off a runner-up finish at the NCAA team championships last season, has three other team members listed in the top five in their respective weight classes. Junior Myles Martin is ranked second in the 184-pound class. Redshirt senior Bo Jordan is ranked third at 174 pounds while his brother, redshirt junior Micah Jordan, is listed fourth at 157 pounds. Sophomore Luke Pletcher (133 pounds) and redshirt sophomore Ke-Shawn Hayes (149 pounds) are both ranked ninth in their respective weight classes. Two new additions to the Buckeyes are also ranked. Joey McKenna, who transferred from Stanford, is ranked sixth at 141 pounds and Te’Shan Campbell, who transferred away from Pittsburgh, is ranked 12th at 165 pounds. Seven Penn State wrestlers are ranked, including five who are ranked No. 1 and two others ranked fourth and fifth. The Buckeyes will face off with the Nittany Lions on Feb. 2 or 4 in University Park, Pennsylvania. Michigan, which FloWrestling ranks third in team rankings behind the Nittany Lions and Buckeyes, will showcase eight ranked wrestlers in its lineup during the upcoming season with six being ranked in the top six. Ohio State will travel to Ann Arbor, Michigan for a dual meet with the Wolverines on Feb. 11. The Buckeyes kick off the 2017-2018 campaign on Nov. 4 when they compete in the Princeton Open in Princeton, New Jersey.
Rangers manager Steven Gerrard believes his side will face a difficult game against the Macedonian side for their second leg Europa League qualifier.Gerrard’s men secured a comfortable 2-0 win in the first leg at Ibrox but failed to put the tie to bed completely. Now the Liverpool legend believes Shkupi will attack Rangers using altogether different tactics for the game on Tuesday night.“I think the scoreline suggests that FC Shkupi have to be aggressive,” said Gerrard, as reported by STV.“They’re the home team. So it doesn’t make sense for them to be defensive and sit back. So we’ll be ready for an aggressive style.”“They came with a game plan to be organised and a team block and to be difficult to break down. I respect their game plan at Ibrox but I expect something very different tomorrow.”The Scottish side exited the competition at the very same stage last season and a second consecutive early exit would be a catastrophic start to Gerrard’s tenure at the club.However, the 38-year-old insists his players are ready to get the job done despite the constant pressure of expectation.“The only pressure we feel tomorrow is representing Rangers”Scotland needs a hero: Billy Dodds Manuel R. Medina – September 10, 2019 According to former striker, Billy Dodds his country needs a hero to inspire future generations as the team’s hope to qualify to the EURO 2020 is small.“Because Rangers is a huge football club so every time you represent the club there’s huge pressure. The players are used to that pressure, the ones like Daniel [Candeias] who have been around for quite some time.”“We come into the game with confidence high. We’re really excited” ?️ GERRARD: “We believe one goal kills the tie. We know it is going to be hot and humid, and it may be a tricky surface and a tricky game, but we are ready for whatever gets thrown at us.”READ: https://t.co/u2TWgJHBzb pic.twitter.com/nkEqIe9oWS— Rangers Football Club (@RangersFC) July 16, 2018
Emmanuel Petit believes Alexis Sanchez’s performances have been totally unacceptable at Manchester United given his pay rateThe Red Devils signed Sanchez in an exchange deal from Arsenal in January with Henrikh Mkhitaryan going the other way.Sanchez signed a four-and-a-half-year contract with United that sees him earn £14m a year after tax.But the Chilean forward has since failed to deliver what was promised at United after finding the net only four times in 30 appearances.This has led to United manager Jose Mourinho dropping him at times this season with the club only eighth in the Premier League standings.Now former Arsenal and Chelsea midfielder Petit has called on Sanchez to take responsibility instead of hiding away.The French World Cup winner even suggested that Sanchez’s brother instead turns up to play at Old Trafford during match days.Merson believes Arsenal should sign Sancho Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 Borussia Dortmund winger Jadon Sancho might be the perfect player to play for the Gunners, according to former England international Paul Merson.“The manager is on the bench, so you need to show pride in your own performance when you are on the field and the first one who has gone into hiding at United is Alexis Sanchez,” Petit told Goal.“He wanted to leave Arsenal because he was chasing the salary United could offer.“Now he receives so much money and in nine months what has he done? Nothing. I have not seen him. I think they signed his brother.“I understand that players believe they deserve certain financial rewards when they reach a certain level, but what we have seen from Sanchez at United has not been acceptable.”The Frenchman also added that the United squad have let Mourinho down this season.The Red Devils will host Arsenal at Old Trafford tonight in the Premier League with kick-off set for 21:00 (CET).